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Sonography is an imaging technique with almost no harm to the body which is also called ultrasound. 
As we know, in X-ray imaging methods such as simple X-ray or CT scan, the body is exposed to a certain amount of ionizing radiation. However, X-ray are not used in ultrasound. The waves used in ultrasound are sonic waves, and they are in fact sound which is not harmful to the body. These waves, which are exactly like sound, but they are not audible by the human ear because  of their high frequency. Nevertheless, they have properties of the sound; that is, they are rebounded after hitting obstacles. 
Ultrasound imaging is not painful and the patient feels no discomfort during the procedure. 
In ultrasound, most soft tissues of the organs can be seen and examined. Thus, ultrasound is not a suitable method for detecting bone problems. However, it can examine the problems in the muscles of ligaments and tendons and many other tissues. 
Ultrasound my be two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Meanwhile, the ultrasound images of organs can be seen while in motion and activity. 

Color Doppler Ultrasound
There is a special type of ultrasound called Doppler ultrasound. This imaging technique works on the basis of the Doppler phenomenon and aims to check the amount and speed of blood flow in the body veins and arteries. This method is more used for assessing the possibility of clots in the deep veins of the leg. 

Elastography of thyroid nodules 

Thyroid nodules are a common phenomenon in the Iranian population, the diagnosis of which is considerably growing usually by ultrasound. Elastography of thyroid is an ultrasound technique for evaluating thyroid nodules stiffness. Assuming malignant. Elastography is a nestechnoque that evaluates the degree of stiffness of lesions. 

It is the gold standard method for distinguishing thyroid benign lesion from malignant lesion that provides helpful distinguishing information of 80% of single nodules. 
FNA has increased in recent years because of the high level of thyroid nodules diagnosed by ultrasound. 
Hopefully, using thyroid elastography and Doppler examination unnecessary FNA on the study population will be reduced. 
Elastography can be used in ultrasound for assessing tissue elasticity because it has the potential to detect cancer in single nodules of thyroid. 

Doppler ultrasound of vessels 
Doppler of abdominal organ (Doppler of liver, Doppler of abdomen, Doppler of pelvis, Doppler of kidney) Doppler of the upper limps and lower limbs 
Doppler of carotid 
Pregnancy Doppler 
Pregnancy Doppler (Doppler of placenta and fetus) 
Vaginal Doppler 
Doppler of testicles 
Penile Doppler with injection 
Routine ultrasounds (abdomen, pelvis, breast, soft tissue, thyroid, etc) 
Ultrasound for determining pregnancy 
Vaginal Ultrasound of uterus 
Screening of the second phase and anomaly 
Biophysical ultrasound 
Three-dimensional of four-dimensional ultrasound 

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